23 November 2022 3 min read

Remix: Satisfying TypeScript with the satisfies keyword

TL;DR - show me the code!

TypeScript 4.9 adds a new keyword: satisfies. You can read about it on the blog post but the abridged version is that it allows you to specify a value conforms to a specific type, but without changing (either widening or narrowing) the type of the value.

We can use this to our advantage when defining Remix loaders.

type Loader = (args: DataFunctionArgs) => Promise<Response> | Response;

export const loader = (async () => new Response("Hello, world!")) satisfies Loader;

Explanation of the problem

Let's first look at an example that we would like to have a type error:

export const loader = () => {
  const message = "hello world";

export default function Route() {
  const message = useLoaderData<typeof loader>();
  return <h1>{message}</h1>;

In this example, we would get the dreaded and often confusing error:

Error: You defined a loader for route "routes/route" but didn't return anything from your loader function. Please return a value or null.

Another scenario where this can be annoying is if you have a loader like this:

export const loader = () => {
  json({ message: "hello world" });

You would get a type error when you try to access useLoaderData<typeof loader>().message, but it won't point you to the missing return. It will just say that message doesn't exist on never.

A first attempt

This is an error that should be easy to catch at compile time. A first attempt at doing this could be to add a return type to the function - but what should that type be? For the useLoaderData<typeof loader> technique to work correctly we need to return a TypedResponse, which in my opinion is a little unsightly:

export const loader = (): TypedResponse<{ message: string }> => {
  // Now it's obvious we need to put a return here
  return json({ message: "hello world" });

It can also be really annoying to have to change the type annotation all the time. The DX of having useLoaderData<typeof loader> infer the type is really nice and it's a shame to lose it.

Another albeit minor problem with this is that we still have to type the function arguments, further increasing the visual noise.

export const loader = ({ request }): TypedResponse<{ message: string }> => {
  return json({ message: request.status });

The satisfies keyword

With the satisfies keyword we can regain the DX lost by adding these type annotations:

type Loader = (args: DataFunctionArgs) => Promise<Response> | Response;

export const loader = (({ request }) => {
  return json({ message: "hello world" });
}) satisfies Loader;

Some notes here:

Tom Sherman

Hey 👋 I'm Tom, a Software Engineer from the UK.

I'm currently a Software Engineer at OVO Energy. I'm super into the web, functional programming, and strong type systems.

You can most easily contact me on Mastodon but I'm also on Twitter, LinkedIn, and GitHub.